Water and Wastewater Resources
According to the latest statistics, Tehran province has 52,434 groundwater resources, a volume of 2,726 million cubic meters consisting of 49,380 wells, 544 aqueducts and 2,510 springs, each with 2,316, 249 and 161 million cubic meters, respectively. The percentage of annual discharge of groundwater resources in the province is 82.8% for deep wells, 2.2% for semi-deep wells, 9.1% for aqueducts and 5.8% for springs.
In Tehran Province, surface flow potential is 1,502 million cubic meters, groundwater resources (wells and aqueducts) 52,434, groundwater discharge 2,726 million cubic meters and volume of renewable water resources is 2,437 million cubic meters. The ratio of Tehran province in this regard to the country is 2.31%, 5.3%, 4.5% and 2.21%, respectively.
The surface water resources in the province are Lar, Latian, Mamlou, Amir Kabir, Taleghan and Namrood dams. The industrial sector consumes 26 million cubic meters of the volume of Mamloo dam. A total of 35 million cubic meters is used by the industrial sector and 5 million cubic meters in the agricultural sector.
The groundwater and surface water resource utilization process is such that there was a drinking water scarcity, at the end of 2016, in Pakdasht, Pishva, Damavand, Shahriar, Firouzkooh and Melard cities.
Of the total number of villages in Tehran province, 401 villages with 645,379 inhabitants equivalent to 1.2 villages in Iran, were provided with provincial water and wastewater systems in Tehran province by the end of 2016.
In rural areas, the total number of water outlets were 148,290, with 58 springs and 34 wells in use, accounting for 2.9% and 0.9% of springs and wells, respectively.
The total number of water outlets in urban areas was 1,451,923 (1,303,730 in the household sector, 1,130 in the industrial sector and 147,063 in the commercial sector). The outlet tariffs for household, commercial and industrial sectors were 2,222, 14,459 and 8,352 Rials, respectively.
There are also 600,174 wastewater treatment plants in Tehran province, of which 572,910 are for the household sector, 27,212 are for the commercial sector and 52 are in the industrial sector. The tariffs for the outlets in the household, commercial and industrial sectors are 2,255, 14,259 and 8,352 Rials, respectively.
In Tehran province, superior water and electricity facilities are designed, implemented and utilized. Due to wastage of water resources and other conditions, investment in non-revenue water reduction and physical loss using modern methods of accurate measurement of water production and consumption, pressure management and modification of many water distribution networks in Tehran is a requisite. The potential of wastewater recycling, consumption and the ability to recycle water and access to new technologies in the process of supplying, transporting and distributing water and producing hydroelectric energy are opportunities in the water sector of Tehran province.
According to the latest statistics of Tehran province, a total of 44 cities and 494 villages, with a total consumption of 22,265 million cubic meters of gas, have been connected to the gas distribution network. The total number of outlets is 3,210,895, of which 2,933,407 are in the household sector, 262,416 in the commercial sector, 11,658 in the industrial sector and 3,414 in the agricultural sector. The number of consumers is 3,200,455 (2,949,939 in the domestic sector, 239, 638 in the commercial sector, 10,887 in the industrial sector). The tariffs for each sector have been estimated as 2,686, 1,123, 958, and 1,384 Rials, respectively. The gas sector has the highest number of subscribers in the country and has a high potential for sales and revenue, homeowner insurance against disasters, as well as suitable network operation and maintenance of infrastructure.
In addition, the growth rate of natural gas consumers, replacement as the second fuel in the transportation industry, and the government’s support in the gas distribution industry are opportunities in this sector.
The volume of petroleum products is 8,850,087 cubic meters, of which consumption of liquefied petroleum is 232,549 tons, and consumption of kerosene, oil fuel and Mazut are 28,367, 2,350,325 and 39,018 cubic meters, respectively.
Products such as kerosene and gas oil are better suited to the environment because of their low sulfur content and aromatics. In addition, saturated hydrocarbons (paraffins) resulting from this process, waxes and lubricating oils, have a higher added value in the production of other products due to their optimum quality, which are important for clean, sulfur-free and aromatic-free transport, making export possible.
In 2017 (Yr. ended March 2017), the volume of gasoline distribution according to Iranian National Standard Office in Tehran province was 5,715,330,000 liters. Total fuel consumption (4 products including engine gasoline, Kerosene, oil fuel, Mazut) was 8,133,040,000 liters, household consumption was 441,778,000 liters, industry consumption 113,572,000 liters and consumption for transportation was 6,913,378,000 liters.
In 2016 (Yr. ended March 2017), gasoline supply amounted to 5,447 million liters, oil fuel supply in the land transport sector amounted to 1,297 million liters, active gas station nozzles and oil fuel suppliers were 5,826, and active CNG nozzles were 1,358.
Existence of fuel depots in 3 geographical locations, the mechanized nature of operation, financial and sales processes are opportunities to invest in the petroleum products sector.
In 2017 (Yr. ended March 2018), the nominal and practical electricity generation capacity in Tehran province was 5,918 and 4,821 thousand kW and the gross electricity generation was 24,011,776 MWh, which was 0.94% higher than the year before. The gross electricity generation from hydro, steam, combined cycle and gas power plants was 304,434, 185,276, 13,582,301 and 4,845,592 million, respectively.
The total number of subscribers in Tehran province was 6,485,659- household (5,070,140), agricultural (1,359,181), industrial (11,722) and commercial (44,616).
The quantity of electricity sold in 2017 was 34,028,869 MWh- 11,738,905 MWh in the household sector, 61,122,981 MWh in the public sector, 6,122,981MWh in the agricultural sector and 7, 124,747 MWh in the industrial sector, meaning electricity consumption in the household sector was 34.4% and in the industrial and agricultural sector 28.9%.
Investment in the electricity industry includes power plants and transmission lines construction, and capacities created for the transfer of electricity and power generation. Investment is also essential to prevent energy loss and in upgrading and equipping existing plants.
In this regard, the strategy of alteration and modification of energy consumption patterns in the province, stated in the national development regulation emphasizing the mechanization of electricity control and distribution systems and new energies, the necessity of developing and optimizing electricity transmission and distribution networks, as well as the exclusive nature of the electricity distribution sector, the government’s made the decision to develop new and alternative energies while enabling the independence of power distribution companies.
Industrial parks in Tehran province have a high share of skilled labour in industrial units, a desirable infrastructure in the field of ICT, the possibility of creating new industrial & high-tech industrial parks and establishing industrial estates. Opportunities in this sector include the formation of about 1/3 of the country’s major industries in the parks, the international transport corridor route, and possessing about 1/3 of the country’s telecommunications networks.
There are 38 industrial parks in Tehran and the province, of which 16 industrial parks and 5 industrial districts can be assigned to interested parties. The land occupied by these industrial parks is 12,126 hectares and the industrial land area is 4,661 hectares, with 4,274 units being active and 1,146 units inactive. Treatment plants have been put into operation for 10 industrial parks and districts. 1,022 licenses have been issued for the supply of water to industrial parks, with a water utilization capacity of 767.4 million liters and electricity generation of 516.2 MW. There are 13 optical fire facilities, 8 clinics, 6 ambulances, and 14 fire stations in the industrial areas. In these industrial parks, the hands-on payment is 10-30% of the total cost and the maximum repayment period will be 30-36 months.
Free and Special Zones
Two special economic zones are being set up in the vicinity of Imam Khomeini Airport and in Rey city in Tehran province.
According to Article 166 of the 5th Development Plan, in order to strengthen the country’s position in the international air transport network and increase the income from transit, freight, passengers, productive employment and transform Imam Khomeini International Airport into the top hub of cargo transportation and the 2nd hub in terms of passenger transportation in the region, organizational, financial and managerial independence must be emphasized, and a sustainable flow of stakeholders must be created by establishing an airport city within the Imam Khomeini International Airport area. Now, part of the 14000-hectare airport town has been turned to a free and special economic zone. The Free Trade Zone and the Special Economic Zone are at the Southern and Western ends of Imam Khomeini Airport, in areas of 1,500 hectares and 2,500 hectares, respectively.
The Imam Khomeini Airport Free Zone preliminary phase started in an area of 240 hectares under the name of Airport City Commercial Area, located in the south-eastern area of Imam Khomeini Airport. With four main uses, it includes offices, commercial and electronic city zones (40 hectares), creative industries (7.4 hectares), state-of-the-art technologies (28.2 hectares) and logistics (87 hectares).
- Administrative site includes administrative offices, banks, insurance, capital market, media city, electronic city (Data Center)
- Supply Chain Support and Production Services (Smart Warehouses & Customs Affairs), Port Services, mixed Transportation Services (Air, Rail & Road)
- Advanced technologies, research and development centers
- Shopping centers including carpet city, jewel and precious stones stores, boutiques, and health centers
- International Exhibition Center
- Center for Creative Industries, Media, etc.
- Reducing cost of consumer and capital goods
- Improving livelihoods
- Increase of relative welfare
- Creating productive employment
- Sustainable Development of Airport City
- Export and transit of goods from region to world markets
- Import of raw materials, semi-manufactured and finished goods from regional and global markets to produce, process and create added value to exports
- Providing customs services and facilities (import-export), TIR carnet, transit, insurance and transportation in the region
- Providing customs facilities and fluidity of import, export, production, processing, re-export and transit of manufactured goods, machinery, raw materials and tools required by the production line (from domestic and foreign sources)
- No time limit requirements for storing goods in the warehouses in the zone, with minimum warehouse costs as agreed by the parties.
- Possibility of relocating or selling all or part of goods to others against a tradable warehouse bill, as well as the certificate of origin and authorization to open a letter of credit in all banks of the country.
- Authorization of entry and unloading of goods on the basis of transit or TIR carnet license from the region to other border areas and customs points of the country and vice versa with guarantees from international transport companies relying on TIR carnet
- Restoration and storage of goods made from a temporary entry point into the zone for export or transit operations and meeting guarantees and obligations.
- Complete exemption from all customs duties for production line installations, facilities and raw materials for investment in the region
- Use of value-added legislation to import the goods produced at the added value generated, excluding customs duties
- Possibility to issue a business license and operating license, company registration and business card in the zone
- Focus on the supply chain
- Ability to define software businesses using the free zone model, such as banking, insurance and new industries
University Centers and Science & Technology Parks
There are 139 scientific and academic centers in Tehran province. The universities of Tehran province have 646 scientific journals and have so far published 3494 publications. Tehran province has hosted 1,149 specialized scientific conferences and 590 scientific lectures. Researchers at Tehran universities and scientific centers have published 652,203 scientific articles including 39,869 journal articles and 299,666 articles for domestic scientific conferences and 39,869 international papers. 1,459,065 students were studying in universities in Tehran province in 2018 (Yr. ended March 2019) with 151,854 faculty members and staff.
Sharif University of Technology, Amir Kabir, Iran Science and Technology (Elm o Sanat), Tehran, Beheshti, Shiraz, Al-Zahra, Kharazmi, Tehran Medical Sciences, Iran Medical Sciences and Khajeh Nasireddin Tusi have international rankings in Tehran.
Of 44 science and technology parks in the country, 28 are located in Tehran, 8 are affiliated to Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), including:
- Science and Technology Park of Tarbiat Modarres University
- The Science and Technology Park of University of Tehran
- The Science and Technology Park of Sharif University of Technology (Sharif Tech Park)- focused on information and communication technology, energy optimization and consumption & energy, nanotechnology and advanced materials, aerospace and related industries.
- Pardis Science and Technology Park
- Science and Technology Park of Islamic Azad University (focused on specialized fields of automotive, pharmaceutical, food and agricultural industries)
- Science and Technology Park of Iran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (focused on pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, specialized laboratory services)
- Science and Technology Park of Shahid Beheshti University (focused on cyberspace, water, energy, environment and pharmaceutical technology)
- Soft and cultural industries Science and Technology Park (focused on Cultural Industries and Soft Technologies)
Tehran Province has 3 customs divisions of West Tehran, Imam Khomeini Airport, Tehran (Shahriyar) Imports Office, as well as Tehran 3rd division of postal services dealing with import and export of parcels and postal goods, export and import activities of non-oil products including agricultural, industrial and mining products etc. According to the customs divisions of Imam Khomeini Airport, West Tehran and Tehran Imports Office, the total value of non-oil exports for Tehran province is 1.663 million USD. The share of non-oil exports in each of Tehran’s west division, Imam Khomeini Airport is 88.5% & 11.5% for the province.
According to Tehran Postal parcel section: Customs division No. 3, Imam Khomeini Airport commercial division, West Tehran and Tehran Import Affairs, the value of Tehran province imports is 6,958 million USD, of which the share of imports for West Tehran Customs and the commercial division of Imam Khomeini Airport constitutes 51.8%, 11.4% and 37% of the province’s import value.
Recreational Sport Places
In 22 regions of Tehran, 477 tracks and fields (capacity of 208,250 people), 3,094 halls (capacity of 139,700 people), 408 swimming pools (capacity of 3,900 people), 2,231 public parks with a total area of 58,676 square meters have been established in Tehran. In addition to recreational areas and sports centers in the 22 regions of the municipality, there are other large recreational and sports centers.
Azadi Grand Stadium, Shahid Shiroudi (Amjadieh), and Enghelab Club alongside recreational centers such as Milad Tower Dolphinarium, City Park Aquarium, Darband sled, Tochal Tele-cabin Resort, Tochal Bag Jump Resort, 7-D Cinema at Ab-O-Atash Park, Water Park Village, Darband and Darakeh along with parks provide recreational and sports facilities.
Tehran's Fire Department has the most advanced and latest fire-fighting facilities in Iran. Tehran's Fire Department has 123 fire stations (117 in the region and 6 outside the region) equipped with advanced firefighting equipment. Most of the stations are located in region 4 and the largest area dedicated to fire stations is in region 1.